Quick Guide to Fire Compartmentation
It is important to limit the spread of a fire in any type of building. Buildings are required to be sub-divided into a number of discreet compartments, using fire-resisting construction materials that will prevent the passage of fire from one cell to another for a given period of time.
In some instances these barriers need to be penetrated for ductwork, plumbing & electrical systems, & in such cases, use of passive fire protection measures shall be done so that the integrity of these barriers is not compromised.
Modes Of Compartmentation:
Water Curtain: Constitute a set of nozzles that are mounted radially to diffuse water at high pressure during fire accidents. This system best prevents the spread of fire across walls, windows, facade and ceiling thus preventing total unwanted damage in the space.
Fire Curtain: Is a specially constructed curtain that descends from the ceiling to block an opening and stop fire and smoke spreading between two areas of basement, floor & kitchen area.
Fire Rated wall: Typically continuous from an exterior wall to an exterior wall, or from a floor below to
a floor or roof above, or from one fire barrier wall to another fire barrier wall like basement.
As per NBC 2016 all floors shall be compartmented | zoned with area of each compartment being not more than 750 meter.
The maximum size of the compartment as per NBC 2016 shown below, in case of sprinklered basement or building:
Compartmentation shall be achieved by means of fire barrier having fire resistance rating of 120 min.
We can make compartmentation by using any one of the methods as mentioned above or we can combine it, like in the basement driveway we can use the motorised fire curtain or water curtain & for car area fire rated wall.
Benefits Of Fire Compartmentation:
Subdivides buildings into manageable areas of risk.
Provides adequate means of escape enabling time for the occupants to safely evacuate the premises.